Se dezvoltă normal copiii crescuți de către cupluri de același sex?

Problema stringentă a societății românești în aceste zile este modificarea Constituției în vederea stabilirii exacte a dreptului la căsătorie. Susținătorii ideii familiei tradiționale aduc argumente în mare parte de ordin religios, cu unii dintre ei mergând până la a invoca posibilele dezavantaje pe care un copil crescut de părinți de același sex le-ar putea avea. Scopul acestui articol este de a clarifica anumite aspecte pe filieră psihologică, aspecte ce țin de dezvoltarea copilului în condiții ce presupun cupluri homosexuale.

De-a lungul anilor au apărut zeci de studii care discută exact această problemă: dacă există sau nu un impact asupra dezvoltării copilului în caz că acesta este crescut în familii alcătuite din persoane de același sex. De la începutul anilor ’80 și până în 2016 nu mai puțin de 78 de studii au fost publicate pe această temă. Le voi trece în revistă pe toate și voi oferi link spre fiecare pentru a putea fi studiat în parte.

Studii care afirmă că nu există un impact asupra copiilor crescuți în familii homosexuale.

  1. Adams, J., & Light, R. (2015). Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.  Social Science Research, 53, 300-310.
  2. Allen, M., & Burrell, N. (1996). Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children: meta-analysis of existing research. Journal of Homosexuality, 32(2), 19-35.
  3. Anderssen, N., Amlie, C., & Ytteroy, E. A. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43(4), 335-351.
  4. Baiocco, R., Santamaria, F., Ioverno, S., Fontanesi, L., Baumgartner, E., Laghi, F., Lingiardi V. (2015). Lesbian mother families and gay father families in Italy: family functioning, dyadic satisfaction, and child well-being. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 12(3), 202-212.
  5. Bailey, J., Bobrow, D., Wolfe, M., & Mikach, S. (1995). Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 124-129.
  6. Biblarz, T. J., & Stacey, J. (2010). How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(1), 3-22.
  7. Bos, H. M. W. (2010). Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4), 356–371.
  8. Bos, H. M. W., Knox, J. R., van Rijn-van Gelderen, L., Gartrell, N. K. (2016). Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children’s Health. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 37(3), 179–187.
  9. Bos, H. M. W., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2010). Children’s gender identity in lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families. Sex Roles, 62(1-2), 114-126
  10. Bos, H. M. W., van Balen F., & van den Boom, D. C. (2005). Lesbian families and family functioning: an overview. Patient Education and Counseling, 59(3), 263-275.
  11. Bos, H. M. W., van Balen, F., & van den Boom, D. C. (2007). Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(1), 38-48.
  12. Bos, H., Gartrell, N., & van Gelderen, L. (2013). Adolescents in lesbian families: DSM-oriented scale scores and stigmatization. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 25(2), 121 – 140.
  13. Bos, H., van Gelderen, L., & Gartrell, N. (2014). Lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families: adolescent-parent relationship quality and adolescent well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 1-16.
  14. Bos, H. M. W., Gartrell, N. K., Peyser, H., & van Balen, F. (2008). The USA national longitudinal lesbian family study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(4), 455-471.
  15. Bos, H. M. W., Goldberg, N. K, van Gelderen, L., & Gartrell, N. (2012). Adolescents of the U.S. National longitudinal lesbian family study: male role models, gender role traits and psychological adjustment. Gender & Society, 26(4), 603 – 638.
  16. Brewaeys, A., Ponjaert, I., van Hall, E. V., & Golombok, S. (1997). Donor insemination: child development and family functioning in lesbian mother families. Human Reproduction, 12(6), 1349-1359.
  17. Brewaeys, A., & van Hall, E. V. (1997). Lesbian motherhood: the impact on child development and family functioning. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 18(1), 1-16.
  18. Chan, R. W., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. J. (1998). Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers. Child Development, 69(2), 443-457.
  19. Crouch, S. R., Waters, E., McNair, R., Power, J., & Davis, E. (2014). Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 14 (635), 1-12.
  20. Crowl, A. L., Ahn, S., & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
  21. Erich, S., Leung, P., & Kindle, P. (2005). A comparative analysis of adoptive family functioning with gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parents and their children. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1 (4), 43-60.
  22. Erich, S., Kanenberg, H., Case, K., Allen, T., & Bogdanos, T. (2009). An empirical analysis of factors affecting adolescent attachment in adoptive families with homosexual and straight parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(3), 398-404.
  23. Falk, P. J. (1989). Lesbian mothers: Psychosocial assumptions in family law. American Psychologist, 44(6), 941-947.
  24. Farr, R. H., Forssell, S. L., & Patterson, C. J. (2010). Parenting and child development in adoptive families: does parental sexual orientation matter? Applied Developmental Science, 14(3), 164-178.
  25. Farr, R. H., & Patterson, C. J. (2013). Coparenting among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: associations with adopted children’s outcomes. Child Development, 84(4), 1226-1240.
  26. Fedewa, A. L., & Clark, T. P. (2009). Parent practices and home-school partnerships: a differential effect for children with same-sex coupled parents? Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 5(4), 312-339.
  27. Flaks, D. K., Ficher, I., Masterpasqua, F., & Joseph, G. (1995) Lesbians choosing motherhood: a comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual parents and their children. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 105-114.
  28. Fulcher, M., Chan, R. W., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. J. (2002). Contact with grandparents among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers. Parenting, 2(1), 61-76.
  29. Fulcher, M., Sutfin, E. L., & Patterson, C. J. (2008) Individual differences in gender development: associations with parental sexual orientation, attitudes, and division of labor. Sex Roles, 58(5/6), 330–341.
  30. Gartrell, N. K., Bos, H. M. W., & Goldberg, N. G. (2011). Adolescents of the U.S. National longitudinal lesbian family study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(6), 1199-1209.
  31. Gartrell, N. K., & Bos, H. M. W. (2010). Us national longitudinal lesbian family study: psychological adjustment of 17-year-old adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(1), 28-36.
  32. Gartrell, N. K., Bos, H. M. W., Peyser, H., Deck, A., & Rodas, C. (2012). Adolescents with lesbian mothers describe their own lives. Journal of Homosexuality, 59(9), 1211-1229.
  33. Gartrell, N. K., Deck, A., Rodas, C., Peyser, H., & Banks, A. (2005). The national lesbian family study: 4. Interviews with the 10-year-old children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(4), 518-524.
  34. Goldberg, A. E. (2007). (How) does it make a difference? Perspectives of adults with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 550-562.
  35. Goldberg, A., & Smith, J. (2013). Predictors of psychological adjustment in early placed adopted children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(3), 431-42.
  36. Goldberg, N. G., Bos, H. M. W., & Gartrell, N. K. (2011). Substance use by adolescents of the USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(8), 1231-1240.
  37. Golombok, S., Perry, B., Burston, A., Murray, C., Mooney-Somers, J., Stevens, M., Golding, J. (2003). Children with lesbian parents: A community study. Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 20-33.
  38. Golombok, S., Spencer, A., & Rutter, M. (1983). Children in lesbian and single-parent households: psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(4), 551-572.
  39. Golombok, S. & Tasker, F. (1996) Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families. Developmental Psychology, 32 (1), 3-11.
  40. Golombok, S., Tasker, F., & Murray, C. (1997). Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: family relationships and the socioemotional development of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(7), 783-791.
  41. Gottman, J. S. (1989). Children of gay and lesbian parents. Marriage & Family Review, 14(3-4), 177-196.
  42. Green, R., Mandel, J. B., Hotvedt, M. E., Gray, J., & Smith, L. (1986). Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15(2), 167-184.
  43. Harris, M., & Turner, P. (1986). Gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Homosexuality, 12(2), 101-13.
  44. Hoeffer, B. (1981). Children’s acquisition of sex-role behavior in lesbian-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51 (3), 536–544.
  45. Huggins, S. (1989). A comparative study of self-esteem of adolescent children of divorced lesbian mothers and divorced heterosexual mothers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18(1-2), 123-135.
  46. Kirkpatrick, M., Smith, C., & Roy, R. (1981). Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparative survey. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51(3), 545-551.
  47. Lamb, M. E. (2012). Mothers, fathers, families, and circumstances: factors affecting children’s adjustment. Applied Developmental Science, 16(2), 98-111.
  48. Lavner, J. A., Waterman, J., & Peplau, L. A. (2012). Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(4), 465-472.
  49. Leddy, A., Gartrell, N., & Bos, H. (2012). Growing up in a lesbian family: the life experiences of the adult daughters and sons of lesbian mothers. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 8(3), 243-257.
  50. Lewis, K. G. (1980). Children of lesbians: Their point of view. Social Work, 25(3), 198-203.
  51. Lick, D. J., Patterson, C. J., & Schmidt, K. M. (2013). Recalled social experiences and current psychological adjustment among adults reared by gay and lesbian parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 9(3), 230-253.
  52. MacCallum, F., & Golombok, S. (2004). Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: a follow-up of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers at early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1407-1419.
  53. Miller, J. A., Jacobsen, R. B., & Bigner, J. J. (1981). The child’s home environment for lesbian vs. heterosexual mothers: a neglected area of research. Journal of Homosexuality, 7(1), 49-56.
  54. Patterson, C. J. (1995). Families of the lesbian baby boom: parents’ division of labor and children’s adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 115-123.
  55. Patterson, C. J. (2001). Families of the Lesbian baby boom: Maternal mental health and child adjustment. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 4(3), 91-107.
  56. Patterson, C. J., Hurt, S., & Mason, C. D. (1998). Families of the lesbian baby boom: Children’s contact with grandparents and other adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(3), 390-399.
  57. Pawelski, J. G. et al (2006). The effects of marriage, civil union, and domestic partnerships laws on the health and well-being of children. Pediatrics, 118(1), 349 -364.
  58. Perrin, E. C. (2002). Technical report: coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Pediatrics, 109(2), 341-344.
  59. Perry, B., Burston, A., Stevens, M., Golding, J., Steele, H., & Golombok, S. (2004). Children’s play narratives: what they tell us about lesbian-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(4), 467-479.
  60. Potter, D. (2012). Same-sex parent families and children’s academic achievement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(3), 556–571.
  61. Rosenfeld, M. J. (2010). Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school. Demography, 47(3), 755-775.
  62. Ryan, S. (2007). Parent-child interaction styles between gay and lesbian parents and their adopted children. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 3(2), 105-132.
  63. Shechner, T., Slone, M., Lobel, T., & Schecter, R. (2013). Children’s adjustment in non-traditional families in Israel: the effect of parental sexual orientation and the number of parents on children’s development. Child: Care, Health, & Development, 39(2), 178-184.
  64. Stacey, J., & Biblarz, T. J. (2001). (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 66(2), 159-183.
  65. Tasker, F. (2005). Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children: a review. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26(3), 224-40.
  66. Tasker, F., & Golombok, S. (1995). Adults raised as children in lesbian families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(2), 203-215.
  67. van Gelderen, L., Bos, H. M. W., Gartrell, N., & Hermanns, J., Perrin, E. C. (2012). Quality of life of adolescents raised from birth by lesbian mothers: the us national longitudinal family study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(1), 17-23.
  68. van Gelderen, L., Gartrell, N. N., Bos, H. M. W., & Hermanns, J. M. A. (2013). Stigmatization and promotive factors in relation to psychological health and life satisfaction of adolescents in planned lesbian families. Journal of Family Issues, 34(6), 809-827.
  69. van Rijn-van Gelderen, L., Bos, H. M. W., & Gartrell, N. (2015) Dutch adolescents from lesbian-parent families: how do they compare to peers with heterosexual parents and what is the impact of homophobic stigmatization? Journal of Adolescence, 40, 65-73.
  70. Vanfraussen, K., Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I., & Brewaeys, A. (2002). What does it mean for youngsters to grow up in a lesbian family created by means of donor insemination? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 20(4), 237-252.
  71. Vanfraussen, K., Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I., & Brewaeys, A. (2003). Family functioning in lesbian families created by donor insemination. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73(1), 78-90.
  72. Wainright, J. L., & Patterson, C. J. (2006). Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(3), 526-530.
  73. Wainright, J. L., & Patterson, C. J. (2008). Peer relations among adolescents with female same-sex parents. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 117-126.
  74. Wainright, J. L., Russell, S. T., & Patterson, C. J. (2004). Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75(6), 1886-1898.

Studii care afirmă că există un impact asupra dezvoltării copilului crescut de către cupluri homosexuale:

  1. Sarantakos, S. (1996). Children in three contexts: Family, education and social development. Children Australia, 21(3), 23-31.
  2. Regnerus, M. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research, 41(4), 752-770. (acest studiu a fost respins de peste 200 de oameni de știință din domeniul științelor sociale iar metodologia acestuia a fost dezvăluită ca fiind deficitară)
  3. Allen, D. W. (2013). High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. Review of Economics of the Household, 11(4), 635-658.
  4. Sullins, D. P. (2015). Emotional problems among children with same-sex parents: difference by definition. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science. (acest studiu a fost realizat de către Universitatea Catolică din America)

După cum putem vedea, există un număr covârșitor de studii în psihologie care afirmă că un copil crescut în familii alcătuite din cupluri de același sex nu are de suferit. Contrar afirmațiilor cu iz pseudoștiințific oferite de susținătorii Bisericii și a miturilor vehiculate pe Internet, există doar patru studii care să afirme că acei copii ar avea de suferit. Din cele patru studii unul a fost găsit ca fiind deliberat manipulat și a fost respins ca atare de peste 200 de semnatari ai unei scrisori deschise alcătuite de comunitatea științifică. Un altul a fost realizat de Universitatea Catolică din SUA, fapt ce adaugă un dram de biasare în privința validității rezultatelor lui.

Concluzia este că raportul studiilor verificate care afirmă că un copil crescut într-o familie de homosexuali nu are probleme de dezvoltare versus studiile care transmit contrariul este de 74 la 2. Rezultă că din totalul studiilor prezentate mai sus, doar 2,7% afirmă că o familie de homosexuali reprezintă un pericol pentru buna dezvoltare a copiilor în timp ce 97,3% afirmă că acești copii nu se află într-un pericol.

Răzvan T. Coloja

Răzvan T. Coloja

Psiholog în Oradea. A terminat facultatea de Ştiinţe Socio-Umane (Psihologie), cea de Ştiinţe (Informatică), cea de Litere (Biblioteconomie) și masteratul de Psihologie Clinică, Consiliere și Psihoterapii. A publicat cinci romane şi câteva articole în reviste de specialitate. Vizitează-i site-ul personal.

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